Parkinson's disease - Symptoms and causes (2023)

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Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and the parts of the body controlled by the nerves. Symptoms start slowly. The first symptom may be a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder may also cause stiffness or slowing of movement.

In the early stages of Parkinson's disease, your face may show little or no expression. Your arms may not swing when you walk. Your speech may become soft or slurred. Parkinson's disease symptoms worsen as your condition progresses over time.

Although Parkinson's disease can't be cured, medications might significantly improve your symptoms. Occasionally, your health care provider may suggest surgery to regulate certain regions of your brain and improve your symptoms.


Parkinson's disease symptoms can be different for everyone. Early symptoms may be mild and go unnoticed. Symptoms often begin on one side of the body and usually remain worse on that side, even after symptoms begin to affect the limbs on both sides.

Parkinson's symptoms may include:

  • Tremor. Rhythmic shaking, called tremor, usually begins in a limb, often your hand or fingers. You may rub your thumb and forefinger back and forth. This is known as a pill-rolling tremor. Your hand may tremble when it's at rest. The shaking may decrease when you are performing tasks.
  • Slowed movement, known as bradykinesia. Over time, Parkinson's disease may slow your movement, making simple tasks difficult and time-consuming. Your steps may become shorter when you walk. It may be difficult to get out of a chair. You may drag or shuffle your feet as you try to walk.
  • Rigid muscles. Muscle stiffness may occur in any part of your body. The stiff muscles can be painful and limit your range of motion.
  • Impaired posture and balance. Your posture may become stooped. Or you may fall or have balance problems as a result of Parkinson's disease.
  • Loss of automatic movements. You may have a decreased ability to perform unconscious movements, including blinking, smiling or swinging your arms when you walk.
  • Speech changes. You may speak softly or quickly, slur, or hesitate before talking. Your speech may be more of a monotone rather than have the usual speech patterns.
  • Writing changes. It may become hard to write, and your writing may appear small.

When to see a doctor

See a health care professional if you have any of the symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease — not only to diagnose your condition but also to rule out other causes for your symptoms.

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In Parkinson's disease, certain nerve cells called neurons in the brain gradually break down or die. Many of the symptoms of Parkinson's are due to a loss of neurons that produce a chemical messenger in your brain called dopamine. When dopamine levels decrease, it causes irregular brain activity, leading to problems with movement and other symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

The cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown, but several factors appear to play a role, including:

  • Genes. Researchers have identified specific genetic changes that can cause Parkinson's disease. But these are uncommon except in rare cases with many family members affected by Parkinson's disease.

    However, certain gene variations appear to increase the risk of Parkinson's disease but with a relatively small risk of Parkinson's disease for each of these genetic markers.

  • Environmental triggers. Exposure to certain toxins or environmental factors may increase the risk of later Parkinson's disease, but the risk is small.

Researchers also have noted that many changes occur in the brains of people with Parkinson's disease, although it's not clear why these changes occur. These changes include:

  • The presence of Lewy bodies. Clumps of specific substances within brain cells are microscopic markers of Parkinson's disease. These are called Lewy bodies, and researchers believe these Lewy bodies hold an important clue to the cause of Parkinson's disease.
  • Alpha-synuclein found within Lewy bodies. Although many substances are found within Lewy bodies, scientists believe that an important one is the natural and widespread protein called alpha-synuclein, also called a-synuclein. It's found in all Lewy bodies in a clumped form that cells can't break down. This is currently an important focus among Parkinson's disease researchers. Researchers have found the clumped alpha-synuclein protein in the spinal fluid of people who later develop Parkinson's disease.

Risk factors

Risk factors for Parkinson's disease include:

  • Age. Young adults rarely experience Parkinson's disease. It ordinarily begins in middle or late life, and the risk increases with age. People usually develop the disease around age 60 or older. If a young person does have Parkinson's disease, genetic counseling might be helpful in making family planning decisions. Work, social situations and medicine side effects are also different from those of an older person with Parkinson's disease and require special considerations.
  • Heredity. Having a close relative with Parkinson's disease increases the chances that you'll develop the disease. However, your risks are still small unless you have many relatives in your family with Parkinson's disease.
  • Sex. Men are more likely to develop Parkinson's disease than are women.
  • Exposure to toxins. Ongoing exposure to herbicides and pesticides may slightly increase your risk of Parkinson's disease.


Parkinson's disease is often accompanied by these additional problems, which may be treatable:

  • Thinking difficulties. You may experience cognitive problems, such as dementia, and thinking difficulties. These usually occur in the later stages of Parkinson's disease. Such cognitive problems aren't usually helped by medicines.
  • Depression and emotional changes. You may experience depression, sometimes in the very early stages. Receiving treatment for depression can make it easier to handle the other challenges of Parkinson's disease.

    You also may experience other emotional changes, such as fear, anxiety or loss of motivation. Your health care team may give you medicine to treat these symptoms.

  • Swallowing problems. You may develop difficulties with swallowing as your condition progresses. Saliva may accumulate in your mouth due to slowed swallowing, leading to drooling.
  • Chewing and eating problems. Late-stage Parkinson's disease affects the muscles in the mouth, making chewing difficult. This can lead to choking and poor nutrition.
  • Sleep problems and sleep disorders. People with Parkinson's disease often have sleep problems, including waking up frequently throughout the night, waking up early or falling asleep during the day.

    People also may experience rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, which involves acting out dreams. Medicines may improve your sleep.

  • Bladder problems. Parkinson's disease may cause bladder problems, including being unable to control urine or having difficulty in urinating.
  • Constipation. Many people with Parkinson's disease develop constipation, mainly due to a slower digestive tract.

You may also experience:

  • Blood pressure changes. You may feel dizzy or lightheaded when you stand due to a sudden drop in blood pressure (orthostatic hypotension).
  • Smell dysfunction. You may experience problems with your sense of smell. You may have trouble identifying certain odors or the difference between odors.
  • Fatigue. Many people with Parkinson's disease lose energy and experience fatigue, especially later in the day. The cause isn't always known.
  • Pain. Some people with Parkinson's disease experience pain, either in specific areas of their bodies or throughout their bodies.
  • Sexual dysfunction. Some people with Parkinson's disease notice a decrease in sexual desire or performance.


Because the cause of Parkinson's is unknown, there are no proven ways to prevent the disease.

Some research has shown that regular aerobic exercise might reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease.

Some other research has shown that people who consume caffeine — which is found in coffee, tea and cola — get Parkinson's disease less often than those who don't drink it. Green tea also is related to a reduced risk of developing Parkinson's disease. However, it is still not known whether caffeine protects against getting Parkinson's or is related in some other way. Currently there is not enough evidence to suggest that drinking caffeinated beverages protects against Parkinson's.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

Parkinson's disease care at Mayo Clinic

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May 26, 2023


  1. Loscalzo J, et al., eds. Parkinson's disease. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 21st ed. McGraw Hill; 2022. Accessed April 4, 2022.
  2. Parkinson's disease: Hope through research. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Accessed April 4, 2022.
  3. Ferri FF. Parkinson disease. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2022. Elsevier; 2022. Accessed April 4, 2022.
  4. Chou KL. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Parkinson disease. Accessed April 4, 2022.
  5. Hornykiewicz O. The discovery of dopamine deficiency in the parkinsonian brain. Journal of Neural Transmission Supplementum. 2006; doi:10.1007/978-3-211-45295-0_3.
  6. Spindler MA, et al. Initial pharmacologic treatment of Parkinson disease. Accessed April 4, 2022.
  7. Relaxation techniques for health. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Accessed April 4, 2022.
  8. Taghizadeh M, et al. The effects of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin E co-supplementation on clinical and metabolic status in patients with Parkinson's disease: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Neurochemistry International. 2017; doi:10.1016/j.neuint.2017.03.014.
  9. Parkinson's disease: Fitness counts. Parkinson's Foundation. Accessed April 4, 2022.Green tea. Natural Medicines. Accessed April 4, 2022.
  10. Green tea. Natural Medicines. Accessed April 4, 2022.
  11. Tarsy D. Nonpharmacologic management of Parkinson disease. Accessed April 4, 2022.
  12. Caffeine. Natural medicines. Accessed April 4, 2022.
  13. Jankovic J. Etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson disease.
  14. Thomas A. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic. April 22, 2022.
  15. Post B, et al. Young onset Parkinson's disease: A modern and tailored approach. Journal of Parkinson's Disease. 2020; doi:10.3233/JPD-202135.
  16. Bower JH (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic. May 16, 2023.
  17. Robbins JA, et al. Swallowing and speech production in Parkinson's disease. Annals of Neurology.1986; doi:10.1002/ana.410190310.
  18. Hauser RA, et al. Orally inhaled levodopa (CVT-301) for early morning OFF periods in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism and Related Disorders. 2019; doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2019.03.026.
  19. Dashtipour K, et al. Speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: Pathophysiology, medical management and surgical approaches. Neurodegenerative Disease Management. 2018; doi:10.2217/nmt-2018-0021.
  20. Mishima T, et al. Personalized medicine in Parkinson's disease: New options for advanced treatments. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; doi:10.3390/jpm11070650.
  21. Jenner P, et al. Istradefylline — A first generation adenosine A2A antagonist for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 2021; doi:10.1080/14737175.2021.1880896.
  22. Isaacson SH, et al. Blinded SAPS-PD assessment after 10 weeks of pimavanserin treatment for Parkinson's disease psychosis. Journal of Parkinson's Disease. 2020; doi:10.3233/JPD-202047.
  23. Al-Shorafat DM, et al. B-blocker-induced tremor. Movement Disorders Clinical Practice. 2021; doi:10.1002/mdc3.13176.
  24. Haahr A, et al. 'Striving for normality' when coping with Parkinson's disease in everyday life. A metasynthesis. International Journal of Nursing Studies. 2021; doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2021.103923.
  25. Mehanna R, et al. Age cutoff for early-onset Parkinson's disease: Recommendations from the International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society task force on early-onset Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders Clinical Practice. 2022; doi:10.1002/mdc3.13523.
  26. Siderowf A, et al. Assessment of heterogeneity among participants in the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative cohort using alpha-synuclein seed amplification: A cross-sectional study. The Lancet Neurology. 2023; doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00109-6.
  27. Berg D, et al. Alpha-synuclein seed amplification and its uses in Parkinson's disease. The Lancet Neurology. 2023; doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00124-2.


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  • Parkinson's disease


What causes most Parkinson's disease symptoms? ›

What causes Parkinson's disease? The most prominent signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease occur when nerve cells in the basal ganglia, an area of the brain that controls movement, become impaired and/or die. Normally, these nerve cells, or neurons, produce an important brain chemical known as dopamine.

What are the causes of Parkinson's disease? ›

Medical experts believe that environmental causes may help trigger Parkinson's disease. Exposure to farming chemicals, like pesticides and herbicides; Vietnam-era exposure to Agent Orange; and working with heavy metals, detergents and solvents have all been implicated and studied for a clearer link.

What are the 4 major symptoms of Parkinson's disease? ›

There are four primary motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease:
  • tremor.
  • rigidity.
  • bradykinesia (slow movement)
  • postural instability (balance problems)

What are the five 5 signs of Parkinson disease? ›

“Besides movement issues Parkinson's disease can cause a wide variety of symptoms including drooling, constipation, low blood pressure when standing up, voice problems, depression, anxiety, sleep problems, hallucinations and dementia.

What toxins cause Parkinson's? ›

Organic pollutants: PCBs, or polychlorinated biphenyls, were used in various industrial processes until they were banned in the 1970s. Researchers have found high concentrations of PCBs in the brains of people who had Parkinson's.

What foods are high in dopamine for Parkinson's disease? ›

Berries, green leafy vegetables, eggs, fish and oil have neuroprotective properties which can reduce cognitive decline and improve memory function. Yogurt, kefir and raw sauerkraut, natural probiotics, can also increase natural dopamine production.

Can stress cause Parkinson's disease? ›

Research suggests that stressful life events may increase the risk of Parkinson's disease. In addition, animal studies indicate that stress damages dopamine cells, resulting in more severe parkinsonian symptoms. In humans, acute stress can worsen motor symptoms, including bradykinesia, freezing, and tremor.

What is the most common cause of death in Parkinson's patients? ›

Available studies have shown that compared with healthy controls, patients with PD are accompanied by high rates of premature death. This is usually caused by factors such as pneumonia and cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases.

What are the first warning signs of Parkinson's? ›

Tremors, muscle stiffness and slowness of movement are all common early symptoms of Parkinson's – but there are also other signs to be aware of. Sleep and night-time problems are common in Parkinson's. People with Parkinson's are more likely to experience insomnia due to certain symptoms which can disrupt sleep.

What can be mistaken as Parkinson's? ›

Several conditions can mimic Parkinson's disease, including:
  • Dementia with Lewy bodies. ...
  • Essential tremor (ET). ...
  • Viral parkinsonism. ...
  • Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). ...
  • Multiple system atrophy (MSA). ...
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). ...
  • Arteriosclerotic parkinsonism. ...
  • Corticobasal syndrome (CBS).
Dec 5, 2022

Who is most likely to get Parkinson's disease? ›

The main risk factor is age, because Parkinson's disease is most commonly found in adults over the age of 50 (although diagnoses can occur in much younger people). Men also have a higher risk of Parkinson's disease than women.

What is the first thing to do if you have Parkinson's disease? ›

Give yourself time for the diagnosis and all it might mean to sink in. Then, get educated: Ask your doctor for information you can take home and read, find other people with Parkinson's in your community or online to talk to, and browse sites like the National Parkinson Foundation and the Michael J.

What is the finger test for Parkinson's? ›

The finger tapping test evaluates bradykinesia, focusing on decrement in rate, amplitude, or both with repetitive action. Vertical positioning of the hands during this task may also be clinically relevant.

What is the life expectancy with Parkinson's? ›

According to the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research, patients usually live between 10 and 20 years after diagnosis.

What is the 2 finger test in dementia? ›

The Interlocking Finger Test (ILFT) by Moo et al. (2003) was developed as a screening for parietal lobe dysfunction and was used to detect bimanual apraxia in patients with Alzheimer's disease (Sanin & Benke, 2017).

What household chemical is tied to Parkinson's disease? ›

Trichloroethylene (TCE), a chemical found in dry cleaning, paint, and many household cleaners may be driving the steep rise in Parkinson's, claim an international group of scientists led by University of Rochester.

What is the cousin of Parkinson's disease? ›

Multiple system atrophy – the cousin of Parkinson's disease. MSA is a degenerative brain disorder that impairs the body's functions, including blood pressure, heart rate, bladder function and is related to Parkinson's disease.

What drink increases dopamine? ›

Green tea is a great beverage if you wish to increase your dopamine levels naturally. Green tea is high in caffeine which boosts our energy levels. Along with this, it also boosts our metabolism. It is also rich in antioxidants and promotes better overall health.

What raises your dopamine levels the highest? ›

If you want to increase your dopamine levels naturally, use these nine tips:
  • Exercise regularly. Physical activity is known to improve mood. ...
  • Eat protein. ...
  • Reduce saturated fat consumption. ...
  • Pay attention to “gut health.” ...
  • Get enough sleep. ...
  • Meditate. ...
  • Get an appropriate amount of sunlight. ...
  • Listen to music you enjoy.
May 31, 2022

What food releases the most dopamine? ›

These 7 dopamine-boosting foods will make you feel happy and...
  1. Nuts and seeds. ...
  2. Non-vegetarian food. ...
  3. Vegetarian protein. ...
  4. Milk and dairy. ...
  5. Chocolates. ...
  6. Strawberries. ...
  7. Coffee.
Apr 3, 2020

Does coffee make Parkinson's worse? ›

A large number of epidemiological studies report an inverse, dose-responsive relationship between coffee/caffeine consumption and the risk of developing PD. Coffee consumption appears to reduce or delay the development of PD and caffeine is most likely the causal factor.

What caused Michael J Fox's Parkinson's disease? ›

Canadian-born actor Michael J. Fox, while working on a CBC sitcom as a teenager, contracted a virus that some researchers say may have caused him to later develop Parkinson's disease. Fox worked on show Leo and Me in Vancouver in 1977.

Does childhood trauma cause Parkinson's? ›

What can trigger Parkinson's? The cause of Parkinson's is unknown, but a stressful or traumatic event can sometimes trigger symptoms. After the death of a family member, a big operation, or a car accident, tremors may become very prominent. Additionally, stress, anxiety, and sleep deprivation always make tremors worse.

What are the signs that Parkinson's is getting worse? ›

6 Signs Your Parkinson's Disease Is Progressing
  • Medication not working.
  • Anxiety and depression.
  • Changing sleeping patterns.
  • Involuntary movements.
  • Trouble swallowing.
  • Memory problems.

What are the last stages of Parkinson's before death? ›

When patients reach stage five – the final stage of Parkinson's disease – they will have severe posture issues in their back, neck, and hips. They will require a wheelchair and may be bedridden. In end-stage of Parkinson's disease, patients will also often experience non-motor symptoms.

Can Parkinson's deteriorate quickly? ›

In most cases, Parkinson's disease symptoms develop gradually. However, recent studies have noted that some individuals in the advanced stages of this disease can deteriorate suddenly. Typically, an abrupt worsening may occur due to a stroke, as this can also affect movement and balance.

At what stage of Parkinson's does dementia start? ›

Some studies have reported that the average time from onset of Parkinson's to developing dementia is about 10 years. One large study found that about three-quarters of people who live with Parkinson's for more than 10 years will develop dementia.

What is the interlocking finger test? ›

The interlocking finger test (ILFT) is a bedside cognitive test of imitation of manual gestures that evaluates a combination of cognitive abilities. • The performance of healthy subjects on ILFT was influenced by age, but not by education or gender.

Can you have Parkinson's for years without knowing? ›

Years can pass before symptoms are obvious enough to make a person to go to the doctor. There's no 'one size fits all' when it comes to Parkinson's disease — different people will experience different symptoms, and of varying severity. One in 3 people, for example, won't experience tremor.

Can an MRI show Parkinson's disease? ›

Recent studies have found that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to help find and diagnose Parkinson's much earlier than other methods. MRIs look for specific markers in the brain that can indicate Parkinson's. Often, these markers are present even before symptoms of Parkinson's begin.

What is a sudden onset of Parkinson's disease? ›

Rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP) is a very rare movement disorder, characterized by the abrupt onset of parkinsonism and dystonia, often triggered by physical or psychological stress.

What is parkinsons gait? ›

'Parkinsonian gait' is a distinctive, less steady walk that arises from changes in posture, slowness of movement (bradykinesia) and a shortened stride.

Can a blood test detect Parkinson's? ›

There are no lab or blood tests that can help your doctor know whether you have Parkinson's. But you may have tests to help your doctor rule out other diseases that could be causing your symptoms. For example: An MRI or CT scan is used to look for signs of a stroke or brain tumor.

How does a neurologist test for Parkinson's? ›

Testing for Parkinson's Disease

A DaTscan involves an injection of a small amount of a radioactive drug and a machine called a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanner, similar to an MRI. The drug binds to dopamine transmitters in the brain, showing where in the brain dopaminergic neurons are.

What are two risk factors of Parkinson's disease? ›

Risk factors for Parkinson's disease include:
  • Age. Young adults rarely experience Parkinson's disease. ...
  • Heredity. Having a close relative with Parkinson's disease increases the chances that you'll develop the disease. ...
  • Sex. Men are more likely to develop Parkinson's disease than are women.
  • Exposure to toxins.
May 26, 2023

How do you stop Parkinson's from progressing? ›

Movement, especially exercises that encourage balance and reciprocal patterns [movements that require coordination of both sides of your body], can actually slow progression of the disease,” she says.

What are the strange behaviors of Parkinson's patients? ›

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can experience several behavioral symptoms, such as apathy, agitation, hypersexuality, stereotypic movements, pathological gambling, abuse of antiparkinsonian drugs, and REM sleep behavioral disorders.

What is the new test for Parkinson's? ›

The test is called an alpha-synuclein seed amplification assay (SAA). Several small studies have previously shown that this test can distinguish between people who do or do not have Parkinson's. On April 12, 2023 The Lancet published the largest test of alpha-synuclein SAA to-date.

What is the mini best test for Parkinson's? ›

The Mini-BESTest test is a 14-item test that focuses on dynamic balance, specifically anticipatory transitions, postural responses, sensory orientation, and dynamic gait [12]. Each item is scored from (0–2); a score of 0 indicates that a person is unable to perform the task while a score of 2 is normal.

What is two finger test with pics? ›

What is a two-finger test? A two-finger test involves a medical practitioner inserting two fingers into a woman's vagina to assess the laxity of the vaginal muscle and examine the hymen. A woman, who has been subjected to sexual assault, is put under the test to understand whether they had recent sexual intercourse.

What stage of Parkinson's is Michael J Fox? ›

After the diagnosis in 1991, Fox's disease progressed over the next few years affecting his entire left side with tremors and stiffness. Michael J. Fox said he is in the "late mild" stage of the disease. For clinical purposes, Parkinson disease is arbitrarily divided into mild, medium, and severe stages.

What time of day are Parkinson's symptoms worse? ›

Some people find that Parkinsonian symptoms are worse in the morning. The medical term for the daytime worsening of Parkinsonian symptoms is “morning akinesia," affecting around 60% of Parkinson's patients. OFF episodes occur when levodopa medications become less effective over time, resulting in motor fluctuations.

What's the oldest you can live with Parkinson's? ›

Average Life Expectancy for Seniors with Parkinson's

Depending on age and location, overall life expectancy is somewhere between the ages of 78 and 81. However, overall life expectancy rates are skewed a little by the fact that more young people engage in risky behavior that can cause earlier death.

What is the 5 minute dementia test? ›

The five-minute cognitive test (FCT) was designed to capture deficits in five domains of cognitive abilities, including episodic memory, language fluency, time orientation, visuospatial function, and executive function.

What is the six question dementia test? ›

The Six Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6CIT) is a brief cognitive function test which takes less than five minutes and is widely used in primary care settings. It involves three orientation items – counting backwards from 20, stating the months of the year in reverse and learning an address.

What is the 12 question dementia test? ›

The SAGE test is a 12-question exam that measures cognitive functioning and may help a physician determine whether Alzheimer's is present. It's recommended that you bring your completed test to a medical professional who can score and interpret the results. If necessary, your doctors will provide further screening.

What is the greatest risk factor for Parkinson's? ›

Age. Age doesn't directly cause Parkinson's disease, but "being an older person" is the greatest risk factor for the neurological disorder, says Dr. Nwabuobi.

Who is most likely to have Parkinson's? ›

Most people diagnosed with PD are age 60 years or older, however, an estimated 5 to 10 percent of people with PD are diagnosed before the age of 50. Approximately 500,000 Americans are diagnosed with PD, but given that many individuals go undiagnosed or are misdiagnosed the actual number is likely much higher.

What is the average age of death for Parkinson's patients? ›

Individuals with PD may have a slightly shorter life span compared to healthy individuals of the same age group. According to the Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research, patients usually begin developing Parkinson's symptoms around age 60 and many live between 10 and 20 years after being diagnosed.

Can you prevent Parkinson's? ›

So far, only two theories have shown to be helpful: exercise and diet. According to studies, physical activity is not only a good way to treat patients with Parkinson's disease, it appears to help prevent or delay the onset. Getting the body moving helps build strength, balance, endurance and coordination.

What lifestyle choices cause Parkinson's disease? ›

The strongest lifestyle factors associated with Parkinson's disease, reported to date, include (A) reduced risk: caffeine, smoking, uric acid, quality diets, and exercise (B) increased risk: exposure to pesticides, head injury, and dairy products, and (C) improved outcomes: mind-body exercises and physical activity.

Is Parkinson's inherited from mother or father? ›

Can Parkinson's be passed from parent to child? It's rare for Parkinson's disease to be passed down from parent to child. Most cases of Parkinson's aren't hereditary. But people who get early-onset Parkinson's disease are more likely to have inherited it.

What state has the highest rate of Parkinson's disease? ›

The key findings show that the incidence of Parkinson's is higher in certain geographic regions: the “Rust Belt”, Southern California, Southeastern Texas, Central Pennsylvania and Florida. (The “Rust Belt” consists of parts of the northeastern and midwestern U.S. with a history of heavy industrial manufacturing.)

What can mimic Parkinson's disease? ›

Several conditions can mimic Parkinson's disease, including:
  • Dementia with Lewy bodies. ...
  • Essential tremor (ET). ...
  • Viral parkinsonism. ...
  • Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). ...
  • Multiple system atrophy (MSA). ...
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). ...
  • Arteriosclerotic parkinsonism. ...
  • Corticobasal syndrome (CBS).
Dec 5, 2022


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